Tuesday, June 21, 2016

Ice Age National Park Justified:
National Significance

by Drew Hanson

In 1958, Ray Zillmer wrote, “[Wisconsin's] glacial moraines answer all the requirements for a national park.” He created two organizations, made a speaking tour and pressured officials to further his proposal. In response, Congressman Henry Reuss introduced bills in Congress to create an Ice Age National Park in Wisconsin. But Zillmer died in 1960. Instead of becoming a national park, his proposal was bifurcated into a National Scenic Trail and a National Scientific Reserve. Six decades later, the concept of an Ice Age National Park still satisfies all the requirements for a national park.

The question of national significance is addressed in this first of a three-part series on how an Ice Age National Park would still meet the National Park Service’s criteria for a new national park.

Often called the father of America’s national parks, John Muir spent his boyhood in Wisconsin along today’s Ice Age Trail. In his biography he wrote, "This sudden plash into pure wildness — baptism in Nature's warm heart — how utterly happy it made us! Nature streaming into us, wooingly teaching her wonderful glowing lessons, so unlike the dismal grammar ashes and cinders so long thrashed into us. Here without knowing it we still were at school; every wild lesson a love lesson, not whipped but charmed into us. Oh, that glorious Wisconsin wilderness!"

Applying the geology he
The lake of John Muir's boyhood home
learned while a student at the University of Wisconsin, Muir was the first to recognize that the valleys of Yosemite were carved by glaciers. Wisconsin, it turns out, offers an ideal landscape to learn glacial geology. As such, geologists named the last 65,000 years of the ice age the Wisconsin Glaciation.

Alpine explorer Ray Zillmer also found inspiration in the glacially-formed landscapes of Wisconsin. Beginning in the 1930s, he pushed the State of Wisconsin to acquire a series of glacial ridges in eastern Wisconsin and create a long-distance hiking trail along them. In the 1950s, he expanded the effort into the proposed Ice Age National Park. It was Zillmer who first instilled a sense of appreciation for long-distance trails in Gaylord Nelson who later sponsored legislation to protect the Appalachian Trail and create the National Trails System.

The Ice Age Trail was established as a “National Scenic Trail” by an act of Congress in 1980 with overall administration assigned to the Secretary of the Interior. The Trail could still form the nucleus for an Ice Age National Park.

Natural Significance

The Ice Age Trail courses
Devils Lake
like a river between the Potawatomi lookout in eastern Wisconsin and the Dalles of the St. Croix in western Wisconsin. Its route approximates the roughly 15,000-year-old terminal moraine of the Laurentide ice sheet for the majority of its length and the Kettle Moraine interlobate belt along its eastern section.

Due in large part to the resources left by continental glaciation in Wisconsin, the period at the closing millennia of the ice age – between 75,000 and 10,000 years ago – is known by North American geologists as the Wisconsin Glaciation. During this period, a concentration of classic glacial landscape features were left in Wisconsin. This is why the proposed Ice Age National Park is entirely within the Badger State.

Some of the glacial features within the proposed Ice Age National Park are among the finest examples of their kind in the nation. Common features include moraines, eskers, drumlins, kames, kettles, ice-walled lake plains, tunnel channels, extinct glacial lakes and of course glacially transported boulders known as erratics. Other glacial features and geologic processes evidenced along the Trail include the catastrophic drainage of pro-glacial lakes, pre-glacial river diversions, multiple glacial advances, potholes carved into bedrock by glacial meltwater, parallel ice-marginal ridges, buried Pleistocene forests, and others. A portion of the proposed national park encompasses the unique unglaciated Driftless Area, providing an illustrative and unparalleled contrast to the effects of continental glaciation.

Other geologic features within the proposed park include bedrock outcrops of Precambrian lava flows and quartzite, 1.9-billion-year-old metamorphosed rhyollite, Cambrian sandstones, and Ordovician and Silurian dolomites. Some of this bedrock would be among the oldest rocks of the entire National Park System.

Hydrologic resources of an Ice Age National Park are outstanding and play a critical role in the lives of millions of people. Many of these resources owe their origin to continental glaciation. They include more than 150 lakes (including Lake Michigan, one of the largest freshwater lakes in the world), countless smaller ponds and springs, many rivers and streams, productive groundwater resources and their recharge areas, and thousands of acres of various types of wetlands. The proposed park includes several nationally-significant trout streams.

oak savanna

Biological resources found along the Ice Age Trail that are of federal or global significance include Karner blue butterfly, Fassett’s locoweed, eastern wolf, Canada lynx, savanna, barrens and prairies. Most of the proposed park consists of carbon-storing forest areas. The largest roadless area is roughly 92 square miles.

With so much international dialog centered on climate change, an Ice Age National Park would provide an important baseline for understanding how climate can affect vast landscapes.

Cultural Significance

An Ice Age National Park would encompass an area with a rich cultural history. Places that were explored by, and shaped the conservation ethic of John Muir, Aldo Leopold, and Justice William O. Douglas are woven into the route of the existing Ice Age Trail. The beauty of the landscape inspired eminent architect Frank Lloyd Wright and Prairie School architecture. The deep traditions of fishing and hunting continue along segments of the Trail where residential areas do not preclude hunting.

Significant archeological resources within the proposed national park include effigy and conical mounds, ancient trails, petroforms, a pipestone quarry, an ancient mass-kill site of bison and a variety of stone tools. Countless sites showing human habitation and use have been found along the Ice Age Trail and undoubtedly others have yet to be found dating back at least 12,000 years. There is more evidence from Wisconsin than any other Upper Midwest state that prehistoric people killed and butchered mammals including the extinct woolly mammoth.

Historic resources within the proposed national park include the lands of John Muir’s boyhood, Aldo Leopold’s shack, the work of landscape architect Jens Jensen (who worked under President Theodore Roosevelt on national parks), five areas of 1930s Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) camps or structures, the underground railroad and Abraham Lincoln lodging at Milton House museum, early 19th century lead mining activities, late 19th century logging camps, an area burned by the Great Peshtigo Fire of 1871 (the largest and deadliest forest fire in U. S. history), and places to interpret the work of prominent early glacial geologists William Alden, Frederick Thwaites, Rollin Salisbury, Thomas Chamberlin and Louis Agassiz.

Several areas within the proposed national park contain extremely productive agricultural lands and historic farmsteads. Establishing the Ice Age National Park can provide the opportunity to not only protect farmland with conservation easements in order to keep it in production, but also to interpret these significant natural resources and the cultural resources embodied by the farms and people who work them. As some people like to say, “The family farm is America’s most endangered resource.”

prairie and savanna

Recreational Significance

Almost twenty million Americans live within a two-hour drive of the proposed Ice Age National Park and more than 1.25 million people use the Ice Age Trail year round. Hikers, business owners, and government partners agree that the Ice Age Trail is already a great benefit to the Upper Midwest tourism and recreation industries. Economic research shows that Trail users contribute approximately $113 million annually. It is safe to assume that an Ice Age National Park would be even more loved and heavily used.

Lands within a proposed Ice Age National Park also support hunting, fishing, swimming, scenic drives, snowmobiling, off-road biking and a host of other outdoor recreation activities.

Look at a map of the nation’s national parks. There is a largely empty space in the middle part of the country. The proposed Ice Age National Park would fill the northern part of this gap and provide tens of millions of Americans with a readily available national park experience.

Next in the Ice Age National Park Justified series will be a discussion of the park’s suitability.

Monday, April 18, 2016

Wisconsin Hiking Pioneers

by Drew Hanson

Wisconsin has an impressive but largely unknown hiking history. This series highlights the accomplishments of five of the state's hiking pioneers. A couple of them may be obvious, but others will be full of surprises. Along the way you'll see how Wisconsin helped shape the sport of hiking in the United States and hopefully discover a lesson for the future of hiking in the Badger State.

Click on the names below for each article.

John Wesley Powell

John Muir

Harold Bradley

Ray Zillmer

Fritz Benedict

Wisconsin's hiking heritage runs deep!

Wednesday, March 16, 2016

Wisconsin Hiking Pioneers:

by Drew Hanson

This is the fifth and final segment in the Wisconsin Hiking Pioneers series.

Fredric “Fritz” Benedict was born in Medford, Wisconsin, in 1914. As a teenager his family moved to Madison.

Benedict went on to study landscape architecture at the University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW) where he was influenced by renowned landscape architect Jens Jensen. UW landscape architecture students of the era were sent to The Clearing, Door County to learn directly from Jensen.

Benedict was active in the Wisconsin Hoofers and elected club president in 1935. His Hoofers experiences brought him under the influence of Harold Bradley.

Benedict's 1938 master’s thesis, Hiking Trails in the Lower Wisconsin River Valley, is a masterpiece in the history of hiking. At its center is a loop trail of approximately 150 miles plus several smaller loops and spurs. More important than the trail route and his detailed description of it is the rigor with which he treats the subject of hiking.

Beginning with broad brush strokes, he states that his thesis is “an attempt to show the needs of hiking in the middle west in general and the Madison area in lower Wisconsin in particular. A detailed study is made of a definite area in Wisconsin and the principles of trail design applied to this area. For some time various individuals in Madison, both in the university and in the city, have felt a need for adequate hiking trails in the interesting driftless area to the west and northwest of Madison. This portion of the lower Wisconsin river basin, with its varied topography, forests, and fields, is as interesting to the hiker as any part of the middle west.”

In deciding the types of uses for which his trail would be designed, Benedict quotes trailblazing conservationists who pointed to humanity's roots: “'The best way to become acquainted with any scenery is to engage in some pursuit in it which harmonizes with it.' — Thoreau. What better way to become harmonized with scenery and the primeval influence than to build a trail and travel along it on foot. Benton Mackaye, originator of the Appalachian Trail, gives an excellent definition of primeval influence: 'Primeval influence is the opposite of machine influence. It is the antidote for over-rapid mechanization. It is getting feet on the ground with eyes toward the sky—not eyes on the ground with feet on the lever. It is feeling what you touch and seeing what you look at. It is the only thing whence first we came and toward which we ultimately live. It is the source of all our knowledge—the open book of which all others are but copies.'”

Not to leave room for interpretation, Benedict provides technical reasons why his southern Wisconsin trail would be primarily for hiking: “No trail built for hiking should be used for horse travel. Horses ordinarily require a wider trail, and they soon ruin the footway and cause an erosional problem in steep sections. It might be possible to use parts of the trail for cross country skiing but in general this sport requires separate trails. Ski trail routes call for more up and down work, elimination of sharp turns and rocky spots, etc.”

One of the photos from Benedict's 1938 master's thesis

Benedict traces the need for hiking trails to the advent of the automobile. As long as there had been roads, people walked them but once automobiles began using the roads, the routes became unpleasant and less safe for pedestrian pursuits. In Benedict’s words, people were “driven off the highways by the automobile.” Add to this the fact that more and more urban dwellers lacked the skills and personal contacts with large rural landowners to take overland walks through the countryside. Thus hiking trails came to be a primary means of providing a primeval influence and physical exercise.

He closes his prophetic introduction by capturing the essence of the hiking problem in the Midwest:
“The biggest hiking seasons are spring and fall. Summer is too hot for many, but some hike all winter. Most hikes are of short duration, a half day or day, with Sundays being the most popular day of the week. In the eastern and western sections of the country are well developed woodland and mountain trails. There are through trails, side trails and connecting trails, resulting in networks that enable hikers to take round trip hikes of practically any duration. Hikers in the middle west are not so fortunate. The few well beaten paths found in our state parks and other scenic areas are usually overcrowded, unplanned and usually too short and unconnected to furnish even a satisfactory half day’s hike. The only way to get off the highways, which are no longer good hiking routes, because of the auto, is to walk through private wood-lots and fields. This method is unsatisfactory for the following reasons: many farmers resent having their lands indiscriminately traveled over; few city people are well enough acquainted with the country to enable them to plan a hike that will lead them through interesting country, past scenic sites, springs, etc.; much of the pleasure of tramping is lost if constant care must be exercised to prevent stumbling over fallen logs and keeping branches out of one’s face. In some places such as on the Baraboo range, it Is possible to hike along logging roads, but these always seem to skirt the high places instead of going right over them.

For the foregoing reasons it is apparent that if the sport of hiking is to prosper and if hikers are to receive fullest enjoyment from their journeys into the out-of-doors, we must build a network of trails such as has been done in the eastern and western parts of our country.”
Trail designers of today might be surprised to discover the technical knowledge that Benedict had amassed in 1938. He describes how, for instance, “Excessive gradient (over 18%) sometimes causes an erosional problem if the trail bed is heavily traveled.” He also shows a sensitivity toward rural landowners that is key to the success of trails in the East and Midwest.

As for the West, he states, “The Pacific Crest Trail system running from Canada and Sierra Nevada ranges for 2,300 miles is routed mainly through national, state, and county parks and forests. For this reason and because of the type of country through which the trail passes, their experience is not so valuable a precedent for us in the middle west as the eastern activity… The long trunk trails have proved most popular in the east, and it is apparent that with the immense objective of a trunk trail, it is much easier to gain enthusiasm and publicity.”

Benedict's 1938 general trail map

Benedict’s proposed trail route includes areas along today’s Ice Age Trail: Cross Plains Reserve, Gibraltar Rock to Merrimac and Devils Lake. In the 1930s, Harold Bradley and others created segments of Benedict's trail through the Baraboo Hills. Most segments, however, were not built. In some cases, such as where Benedict's trail would pass Skillet Creek Falls or a ridge paralleling Madison’s Old Sauk Road, the land has been developed with private homes.

Shortly after earning his master’s degree, Benedict accepted the invitation of eminent architect Frank Lloyd Wright to be head gardener at Taliesen, near Spring Green, Wisconsin. But Benedict’s interest in Wright’s philosophy of the integration of architecture and landscape led him to study design at both Taliesen and Taliesen West in Phoenix, Arizona for the next three years.

Benedict and Frank Lloyd Wright
In 1941, during one of his trips between Taliesen and Taliesen West, Benedict visited Aspen, Colorado for the National Skiing Championships. Less than a year later, he was drafted into the 10th Mountain Division of the U.S. Army and trained at nearby Leadville. After seeing active duty in Italy, he returned to Aspen in 1945 and with other ski troopers became the nucleus for the Colorado ski industry. In the ensuing decades he designed over 200 buildings in the Aspen area and three of the nation’s premier ski areas—Vail, Snowmass and Breckenridge as well as additions to Aspen and Steamboat Springs.

Late in life, Benedict was inducted into the College of Fellows of the American Institute of Architects. The nomination stated that he “left a legendary influence on design and construction in the Rocky Mountain West...(creating) classics of the mountain vernacular.” In 1989 his alma matter bestowed on him its Outstanding Alumnus award.

Significant to the Wisconsin Hiking Pioneers series, another of Benedict’s achievements was his founding of a trail system that was created and exists today. In what must have been an exuberant application of his UW master’s thesis, in 1980 Benedict founded the 10th Mountain Hut and Trail System. Utilizing vast public lands of Colorado, the trail system has grown to include 34 backcountry huts connected by 350 miles of trails.


For thousands of years, long-distance trails, like the ancient trail between Prairie du Chien and Milwaukee, kept us in step with part of our humanity. John Wesley Powell’s hike across Wisconsin and John Muir’s thousand-mile trek to the Gulf of Mexico continued the tradition. It is an experience Ray Zillmer wanted to preserve when he championed the Ice Age National Park and Trail. But such inspiring treks will be possible in the future only if the land needed to complete long-distance trails is in the public trust.

More than three-quarters of a century after Benedict predicted “a need for adequate hiking trails,” it remains very difficult to find high-quality, half-day to multi-day hiking trails in southern Wisconsin and more broadly anywhere within three hours of Chicago.

A visionary plan was not enough to allow Benedict's proposed trail to become reality. The Appalachian Trail and nearly every trail in the West prove that having the land needed to construct a trail is more important to its success than plans.


“Aspen’s 20th Century Architecture: Modernism,” http://www.aspenpitkin.com/Portals/0/docs/City/Comdev/HPC/modernismcontextpaperSMALLER.pdf

“Conservation Pioneers: Jens Jensen and The Friends of our Native Landscape,” by William H. Tishler and Erik M. Ghenoiu, Wisconsin Magazine of History, Summer, 2003, p 12.

The Milwaukee Journal, Nov. 10, 1935, section VII., p 2.

The Denver Post, Joanne Ditmer, “Aspen Hall of Fame”.

“Hiking Trails in the Lower Wisconsin River Valley,” by Fredric Allen Benedict, master of science thesis, University of Wisconsin, 1938.

“Hoofer Sailing Club History,” http://www.hoofersailing.org/?q=about/history.

“Hoofers, A History,” http://opo.hoofers.org/node/83.


Saturday, March 12, 2016

Wisconsin Hiking Pioneers:

by Drew Hanson

Ray Zillmer left for posterity Wisconsin’s greatest trail, the organization that promotes and protects it and a backpack of conservation and exploration accomplishments.

Although direct evidence of Zillmer meeting previous Wisconsin Hiking Pioneer Harold Bradley is yet to be discovered, interaction between them seems possible if not likely. Except for Zillmer's one year at Harvard, he and Bradley were both at the University of Wisconsin–Madison 1906–1914 (when enrollment ranged between only 2,700–4,500 students) and were both active in similar outdoor pursuits. After completing his PhD, Zillmer moved to Milwaukee where he practiced law until his death in 1960.

During the 1930s–1940s, Zillmer became an accomplished and respected explorer and mountaineer. In 1934 Zillmer was part of a team of five mountaineers who completed the first ascent of Anchorite Peak, British Columbia, Canada. He would go on to summit many other peaks and describe previously uncharted lands.

In the summer of 1938, he and a companion retraced the steps of Alexander MacKenzie's 1793 expedition between the Fraser and Bella Coola rivers, through part of what is today Tweedsmuir South Provincial Park. He described the adventure in detail in his first of four articles published in the Canadian Alpine Journal.

The American Alpine Journal also published several of his exploration and mountaineering articles, including:

In recognition of his accomplishments, Mount Zillmer, Zillmer Creek and Zillmer Glacier in British Columbia's Cariboo Range were all named in his honor.

Back in his home state of Wisconsin, through his leadership in the Izaak Walton League, Ray Zillmer led the effort to acquire land for the Kettle Moraine State Forest and founded the Ice Age Trail.

Zillmer's insistence that long, narrow corridors of public land serve greater numbers of outdoor recreationists than western national parks and his proposal for a long-distance hiking trail in Wisconsin made an impression on Wisconsin Governor Gaylord Nelson. Armed with this appreciation and later as a U.S. Senator, Nelson introduced legislation to designate the Appalachian Trail America's first national scenic trail and introduced the National Trails System Act of 1968.

For many years Zillmer led weekend hikes in the Kettle Moraine during fall, winter and early spring. The hikes were memorable for the miles covered as well as the lunch which consisted of various cans of soup brought by fellow hikers, all combined into a single pot.

In the 1950s he worked closely with the Wisconsin Conservation Department (precursor to the DNR) to design backcountry huts for hikers in the Kettle Moraine State Forest. He then donated thousands of dollars to their construction.

In 1958 he established the Ice Age National Park Citizens Committee and the Ice Age Park and Trail Foundation, later renamed the Ice Age Trail Alliance. His articles proposing an Ice Age National Park in Wisconsin were published in 1958 by the Milwaukee Public Museum and in 1959 by the Wisconsin Alumnus magazine.

In 1933 the Wisconsin Izaak Walton League named Zillmer "Man of the Year" for his work on the Kettle Moraine State Forest. In 1959 he was presented a plaque by the National Campers and Hikers Association for his efforts to preserve natural areas for public use. A trail system in the Northern Kettle Moraine State Forest is named the Zillmer Trails and a park in St. Croix Falls, Wisconsin is named Ray Zillmer Park, both in his honor. He was inducted into the Wisconsin Conservation Hall of Fame in 1993. Today the highest award of achievement given by the Ice Age Trail Alliance is the Ray Zillmer Award.

Following his death in December, 1960 the Milwaukee Journal opined, "...the people of Milwaukee and of Wisconsin and the conservation movement nationally are deeply indebted to Mr. Zillmer. His vision, his boundless energy and his dogged determination in behalf of worthy causes to which he was devoted became legend . . . No community and no state ever has enough of men like Raymond T. Zillmer. And the loss of even one, inevitable as it may be, is cause for deep regret."

Find other articles in the Wisconsin Hiking Pioneers series at http://pedestrianview.blogspot.com/p/wisconsin-hiking-pioneers.html.


Our Greatest Trail, Erik Ness, Wisconsin Trails magazine, April 2002, Vol. 43, No. 2

"Climb Anchorite Peak", The Montreal Gazette, July 23, 1934.

Along Wisconsin's Ice Age Trail, 2008, page 8.

"Scorning A Glacial Gift", The Milwaukee Journal, August 21, 1988.

"Origins of Wisconsin's Ice Age Trail", Sarah Mittlefeldht, Wisconsin Magazine of History: Volume 90, number 3, spring 2007, page 7.

These American Lands, Dyan Zaslowsky and T.H. Watkins, 1994, pages 258-259.


"The Wisconsin Glacier National Forest Park", Lore, Milwaukee Public Museum, vol 8, edition 2, 1958.

"Wisconsin’s Proposed Ice Age National Park", Wisconsin Alumnus, March, 1959

American Alpine Club, http://publications.americanalpineclub.org/articles/12196134700/print

Sunday, March 6, 2016

Wisconsin Hiking Pioneers:

Raised in Berkeley, California, Harold Bradley had the kind of childhood that would seem dreamy to most hikers. His father, Cornelius Bradley, was one of the people assembled in 1892 by their friend, John Muir, to found the Sierra Club.

Muir was a frequent guest at the Bradley home, sometimes spending nights and loved for his animated storytelling. Like Muir, Harold and Cornelius hiked and camped in and around Yosemite National Park, including in Hetch Hetchy Valley before it was famously dammed. Mount Bradley, also in the Sierras, is named for Cornelius Bradley.

After earning his PhD at Yale and teaching there for a year, Harold Bradley moved to Madison, Wisconsin in 1906 to become professor of biochemistry and the first faculty member of the University of Wisconsin Medical School.

During a 1927 canoe trip to Canada’s Quetico Park, Harold Bradley and others of his group conceived of an outing club at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Four years later, Bradley co-founded Wisconsin Hoofers.

Hoofers was designed to “foster interest and participation in outdoor activities by providing and developing leadership, instruction, programs, services, and equipment.” Modeled after New Hampshire’s Dartmouth Outing Club, ‘Hoofers' was chosen as the club’s name because Hoofers move by their own power, or "hoof it"!

During its early years, Hoofers held weekly trips for hiking, climbing, archery, and camping, along with a semi-annual 25-mile walk around Lake Mendota. Devils Lake was another center of activity.

Harold Bradley remained an active part of Hoofers activities and his eldest son served a term as Hoofers President. Part of a hiking trail that was created in the 1930s between Baxters Hollow and Devils Lake was marked by Harold Bradley. The trail was extended to Natural Bridge and a few of its bronze markers can still be found today. More broadly, Harold influenced the lives of generations of young adults to enjoy vigorous outdoor pursuits.

1938 map with red line showing trail marked by Harold Bradley

During his years of residing in Wisconsin, Harold Bradley returned to California on many occasions for hiking and skiing trips in the Sierras, sometimes solo and other times with sons or friends. On one ski trip with a son in 1935 Harold happened to meet and befriend the renowned photographer Ansel Adams.

After 42 years of service to the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Harold retired to his family home in Berkeley.

Following the tradition of leadership established by his father, Harold became a member of the Sierra Club’s national board of directors in 1951 and served for ten years, including a two-year term as Club President. When he retired from the board he was elected an Honorary Vice President, which he held from 1961 until his election as Honorary President in 1974. In 1966, he was given the John Muir Conservation Award, the highest the Club can extend to anyone.

Harold Bradley helped purchase land at Tuolumne Meadows that was later donated to the National Park Service for inclusion in Yosemite National Park. Introduced to skiing while living in Madison, he was posthumously inducted into the U.S. Ski and Snowboard Hall of Fame. The University of Wisconsin-Madison named one of its student residence halls in his honor and he and his wife were lead donors to the construction of its first children's hospital. He also left a legacy for the sport of hiking.

Harold Bradley was a linchpin of Wisconsin hiking history. John Wesley Powell influenced John Muir, who influenced Harold Bradley, who co-founded the Wisconsin Hoofers and influenced at least one of the remaining Wisconsin Hiking Pioneers. Find other articles in the series at http://pedestrianview.blogspot.com/p/wisconsin-hiking-pioneers.html.


“Bradley Memorial Hospital,” https://www2.fpm.wisc.edu/ppnew/featurebldg/pdf/bradley.pdf.

“Hiking Trails in the Lower Wisconsin River Valley,” by Fredric Allen Benedict, master of science thesis, University of Wisconsin, 1938.

“Hoofer Sailing Club History,” http://www.hoofersailing.org/?q=about/history.

“Hoofers Make Plans,” Wisconsin State Journal, November 11, 1935, page 8.

“Hoofers, A History,” http://opo.hoofers.org/node/83. Sierra Club Reminiscences, 1975, http://digitalassets.lib.berkeley.edu/roho/ucb/text/sc_reminiscences2.pdf.